Menu
Contact Us Search

Science Spotlight

Science Institute News

rss

Recent accomplishments of CDFW's scientific community


Banking on a Future for California’s Natural Resources

Banking on a Future for California’s Natural Resources

a brown frog looks up from green water and grass at the endge of a pond
A California red-legged frog sits motionless at the edge of McClure pond at the Sparling Ranch Conservation Bank. Photo by Ashley Spratt/USFWS

a small stand of oak trees is reflected in the green water of a pond, surrounded by dead, yellow grassy hillsides
McClure pond is one of the most productive California red-legged frog ponds at the Sparling Ranch Conservation Bank. Like many of those on Sparling Ranch, it was named after the family who homesteaded in site in the late 1800s. Photo by Ashley Spratt/USFWS

Since the mid-1980s, California has been using a system of conservation and mitigation banking to protect valuable natural resources and critical habitat for fish, wildlife and plants. These banks are generally large, connected, ecologically meaningful areas of preserved, restored, enhanced or constructed habitat (for example, wetlands) that are set aside for the express purpose of providing mitigation for project impacts. Conservation banks provide mitigation for impacts to listed species and habitats, while wetland mitigation banks primarily provide mitigation for wetland impacts. Together, they serve to prevent inadequate, fragmented reserves that can result when mitigation projects are carried out individually.

Banks work by establishing credits for sensitive species or habitats found on a given site. These credits can then be sold to developers or other project proponents who need to meet permitting requirements or are otherwise required to compensate for environmental impacts. For those parties needing to mitigate for project impacts, banks serve to streamline the regulatory process by providing a pre-established mitigation site that the regulating state and federal agencies have already confirmed will provide adequate and appropriate mitigation for certain habitats or species. By mitigating at a bank, project proponents can avoid the time and cost of searching for a suitable mitigation site and protecting it in perpetuity themselves.

In order for the banking system to be effective, state and federal agencies must work closely together to align processes and practices. Since 1993, CDFW has been participating in the planning, review, approval, establishment, monitoring and oversight of 81 banks statewide. Other agencies that typically participate in the regulation and approval of conservation banks include the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA NMFS).

To read more about one of these successful partnerships, link opens in new windowplease visit USFWS’ newsroom.

Learn more about CDFW’s Conservation and Mitigation Banking program, on our website.

All photos courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Top photo: A herd of cattle graze atop a hillside at Sparling Ranch near Hollister, Calif. Photo by Ashley Spratt/USFWS.


Bringing the Paiute Cutthroat Trout Home

Bringing the Paiute Cutthroat Trout Home

a woman wearing a California Fish and Wildlife uniform, standing in waist-high grasses, connects cables in a 1-foot-square, plastic box.
CDFW Scientific Aide Aimee Taylor prepares electrofisher to harmlessly catch Paiute cutthroat trout in North Fork Cottonwood Creek.

an irridescent gray, purple, pink and white cutthroat trout hovers in the sunlit water of a shallow creek
The extremely rare Paiute cutthroat trout (PCT). Photo by William Somer for CDFW.

Two people wearing Fish and Wildlife uniforms stand in a shallow mountain stream, surrounded by lush Alpine vegetation
Aimee Taylor and Senior Environmental Scientist Jeff Weaver electrofish PCT in North Fork Cottonwood Creek.

Four people kneel in green grass next to a stream, huddled around something on the ground
Jeff Weaver, USFWS Biologist Chad Mellison and others take genetic samples from the fish.

At a pack station with horses in the background, two men transfer fish by net, into an old-fashioned milk can.
The project’s lead biologist, Bill Somer, and Chad Mellison transfer the trout from CDFW’s tank truck to cans for the ride to Silver King Creek, by pack mule.

A pack train of seven loaded mules and three riders on horseback traverse a high mountain plain under a partly cloudy sky
The CDFW-FWS-USFS team packs pure PCT in milk cans through the Silver King drainage.

A man wearing hip waders and a California Fish and Wildlife uniform stands knee-deep in a stream that runs through a green meadow, where he lowers a white bucket into the water to release two small fish.
Bill Somer releases Paiute cutthroat trout into Silver King Creek, above Llewellyn Falls.

A trout lies in an elongated net with measuring marks, held next to a white bucket with water and other live fish in it.
Team members measured each Paiute cutthroat trout caught at White Mountain.

The California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), and U.S. Forest Service (USFS) have returned a rare trout species to its home water after a 71-year absence.

In 1946, poachers were decimating the Paiute Cutthroat Trout (PCT), a species whose native range was limited to a nine-mile section of Silver King Creek (Alpine County). To ensure the species’ survival, the USFS and Eastern Packers Association translocated 401 of these fish to North Fork Cottonwood Creek in Inyo County’s White Mountains. This population has persisted in isolation from other forms of trout and has recently provided important restoration options for resource managers. None of this would have been possible without the foresight of concerned biologists seven decades ago.

The conservation history of this rare trout is complex. The initial “conservation” measure was entirely inadvertent. In the early 1900s, Basque sheepherders in the area caught and transported PCT into the previously fishless portion of Silver King Creek above Llewellyn Falls. This early within-basin transfer was the salvation of the PCT, since non-native species were later introduced below the falls. The falls prevented non-natives from reaching the habitat above and protected PCT from hybridization and competition.

The FWS listed PCT as endangered under the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966 – the precursor to the federal Endangered Species Act (1973). The species was down-listed to threatened status in 1975, in order to facilitate management and restoration and to allow regulated angling. In 1994, CDFW, FWS and USFS began developing a restoration plan to remove non-native fishes from Silver King Creek and return the PCT to its native waters. From 2013 to 2015, the partner agencies treated 11 stream miles of Silver King Creek and three tributaries below Llewellyn Falls with a fish toxicant, rotenone, to remove all non-native fish species.

The PCT population in Upper Fish Valley, an area of Silver King Creek above the falls, has been considered a primary source for restocking the recovery area. Unfortunately, that population was heavily impacted by the extreme 2012-2016 drought. During this extended drought, lack of snow cover resulted in the stream freezing almost solid during cold snaps. In order to offset the resulting population decline, the partner agencies caught 86 pure PCT in North Fork Cottonwood Creek. On August 23, 2017, the fish were planted back into Silver King Creek above Llewellyn Falls.

Agency staff met in the White Mountain Wilderness (Inyo National Forest) and, along with volunteers and pack mules, hiked from their campsite to North Fork Cottonwood Creek. There, the team used electrofishers to retrieve descendants of the fish moved back in 1946. The fish were hauled out by mule, put in a specialized transport truck, and driven approximately 100 miles to the Carson Iceberg Wilderness. Another mule team then hauled them back to Silver King Creek. Thanks to careful handling by the collection and transport teams, every fish survived the trip home.

Due to its limited habitat, the Paiute Cutthroat Trout has been called the rarest, but most recoverable, form of trout in the United States. With the most recent success of this partnership, and due in large part to the foresight of conservationists in the past, the future looks bright for this beautiful native salmonid.

Learn more on the Paiute cutthroat trout web page.

Photos by Joe Barker, courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, except as noted.

Top photo:
Liz Vandentoorn, from the Inyo National Forest Region 5 Center of Excellence, leads a pack mule team and state and federal scientists to North Fork Cottonwood Creek to capture Paiute cutthroat trout and return them to Silver King Creek.



Recent Posts

  • For 21 Years, Volunteer Has Kept Tabs on Morro Bay’s Black Brant Posted 6 days ago
    Banded black brant feeding on eelgrass Volunteer John Roser in the field at Morro Bay Flock of black brant in flight above Morro Bay Black brant in Morro Bay John Roser began hearing the stories shortly after he moved to Los Osos, San ...
  • CDFW Gets a Jump on Preserving Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frogs Posted 2 weeks ago
    It does not take a leap of faith to believe that CDFW scientists have gained the upper hand in bolstering the population of yellow-legged frogs in the High Sierra. Over the past three decades, Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs have become ...
  • California Fish and Game, Volume 103, Issue 3 Posted 3 weeks ago
    The latest issue of California Fish and Game, 103-3, makes a significant contribution to the body of research related to longfin smelt in California. A paper titled, “Historic and contemporary distribution of Longfin Smelt (Spirinchus thaleichthys) along the California ...
  • The Challenges of Studying Roosevelt Elk Posted 3 weeks ago
    For residents of Humboldt and Del Norte counties, the majestic Roosevelt elk is a common sight. Although Roosevelt numbers were dwindling in California by the 1920s, conservative management strategies and limited hunting opportunities have helped them to rebound. Today, ...
  • Badly Burned Ursines Get Back on their Feet – Thanks to Teamwork and Fish Skin Posted last month
    The tilapia skin is visible on the bottom of the bear's paw. Veterinarians perform an ultrasound to check on the progress of the second bear's pregnancy. Acupuncture needles assist with pain management. After placing the second bear, the team moved the first ...
Read More »

CDFW Science Institute logo