Last Updated: November 30, 2017
White Shark CESA Review Concludes - Listing Not Warranted
On June 4, 2014, consistent with the recommendation of the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW), the California Fish and Game Commission (Commission) determined that based on the best available science, listing the Northeastern Pacific population of white shark as a threatened or endangered species under CESA is not warranted. The Commission's decision took effect on August 22, 2014, when the findings were published in the California Regulatory Notice Register.
With the Commission's recent action and the related published notice, white shark is no longer a candidate species under CESA, and take of white shark is no longer prohibited by CESA. However, take of white shark is still prohibited in the recreational and commercial fisheries, except for an incidental allowance for gillnet and seine (a.k.a. round haul) vessels (Fish and Game Code § 8599; California Code of Regulations Title 14, § 28.06). Additionally, a Scientific Collecting Permit is required for the take or possession of white shark for scientific, educational or propagation purposes (FGC §§ 5517 & 8599.3; CCR T14, § 650 et seq.).
Brief History of the Petition Process
The Commission received a petition to list the Northeastern Pacific population of white shark as threatened or endangered under the California Endangered Species Act (CESA) on August 20, 2012. Pursuant to the requirements of CESA, CDFW prepared an evaluation of the petition which concluded that the petition contained sufficient scientific information to indicate listing may be warranted.
The Commission unanimously concluded that listing the Northeastern Pacific population of white shark as threatened or endangered may be warranted on February 6, 2013, and designated the species as a candidate under CESA. The Commission's decision went into effect on March 1, 2013, when a notice of decision was published in the California Regulatory Notice Register. After the notice publication, CDFW provided a written report to the Commission indicating that listing the white shark as threatened or endangered under CESA was not warranted.
Status Review References
White Shark Facts
White Sharks, also called great White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias), are one of the ocean's primary predators, and fascinating creatures to many. Yet, White Sharks remain one of the least understood of the sea's creatures, despite the enormous popular and scientific interest in them. Below are some common questions about White Sharks and other shark attacks in California, with answers from CDFW experts:
Q: How common are shark attacks on humans?
Shark attacks are extremely rare in California. While they don't typically prey on humans, sharks may pose a threat if you meet them on their "turf" (or maybe in this case "surf"). Since 1950, there have been 178 shark incidents* in California involving all species of sharks at least 158 of which involved White Sharks. Of those, 13 were fatal and all of the fatalities involved White Sharks.
It is important to note that while human beach use and ocean activities have greatly increased due to the growing population and greater popularity of surfing, swimming, and scuba diving, shark incidents have not increased proportionally. This is even more evident when looking at incidents where a person was injured.
California Shark Incident* Statistics (Updated November 2017)
* A shark incident is defined as any documented case where a shark approached and touched a person in the water or a person’s surfboard, kayak, paddleboard, etc. This summary does not include shark sightings where no contact occurred, incidents where sharks approached boats, or cases where hooked sharks caused injury or damage.
Download a Summary of Shark Incidents in California (PDF)
Download the Map: White Shark Attack Occurrences in California from 1950-2017 (PDF)
Q: What do White Sharks typically eat?
Both adult and juvenile White Sharks are ambush predators – meaning they rapidly attack their prey from a concealed position. Juveniles typically feed on fishes, small sharks, and rays. Adults have a broader menu, which includes fishes, seals, sea lions, dolphins, whale blubber (scavenged), seabirds, sea turtles, rays, and other sharks.
Q: How large do White Sharks get?
White Sharks are about 4 to 5 feet long when first born. Juvenile sharks grow slowly to about 10 feet long, when they are considered mature. Adult White Sharks grow to about 21 feet long and are one of the top-level predators of the ocean. A female White Shark was captured off Point Vincente, Los Angeles County, in September 1986 that measured 17.6 feet and weighed 4,140 lbs.
Q: How old do White Sharks get and how often do they reproduce?
White Sharks are long-lived; a recent study at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution determined White Sharks can live to be 40 to 70 years old. They do not reproduce for the first several years. Male White Sharks become sexually mature at around 9-10 years of age. Females become mature at around 14-16 years old, and can have between two and 14 "pups" per litter. Birthing is thought to occur in the spring and summer months, but has never been witnessed. Each pup is around 4-5 feet long at birth, and comes equipped with a full set of teeth.
Scientists believe White Shark gestation periods last about 12 months, which means that female White Sharks may breed only once every two years. This slow rate of reproduction indicates that it would take a long time for White Shark populations to recover if they became severely depleted.
Scientists consider Southern California a nursery ground for White Sharks. Pregnant sharks likely give birth in the relatively calm, warmer waters offshore and the juvenile sharks spend significant time in shallow water. The juveniles feed on abundant stingrays and other small fish during warm water periods. As they grow and mature, the sharks move to other areas and colder water, where seals and sea lions are more abundant.
Q: Where do White Sharks occur?
White Sharks are widely distributed around the world, mostly in cold, temperate waters, only occasionally occurring in tropical seas. They prefer areas with sea surface temperatures of 50-72 degrees Fahrenheit. White Sharks are commonly seen at the ocean surface but have been known to occur as deep as 6,150 ft. Juvenile White Sharks are frequently seen in shallow nearshore waters off Southern California, especially in the summer and during warm water periods.
Q: What is the White Sharks' role in the marine ecosystem?
White Sharks play a crucial role in the marine ecosystem by feeding on pinniped (seals and sea lions) populations. The only real threats to White Sharks face are humans and the occasional killer whale (or Orca, Orcinus Orca).
According to Burr Heneman, who drafted California's White Shark protection legislation, "White Sharks, orcas, and disease are about the only factors limiting seal and sea lion populations in California, and research increasingly confirms that the White Shark population is pretty small and highly vulnerable to fishing pressure."
Q: How large is the White Shark population and is it increasing?
There are currently multiple estimates of the Northeast Pacific White Shark population ranging from just a few hundred to greater than 3,000 individuals. All current estimates involve some degree of uncertainty, as there are significant gaps in understanding of White Shark movements, reproductive biology and mating behaviors. Based on a thorough review of the best available scientific information, the higher estimates are more likely correct.
Data on commercial fisheries interactions provide a useful tool for studying trends in White Shark populations, which are difficult to study directly due to their wide range and low density. Catch trends over the past decade suggest the juvenile White Shark population in Southern California may be increasing. This is further supported by a rise in the incidental catch of White Sharks in gillnet fisheries even as effort in these fisheries has declined. The apparent population increase may be due to added regulatory protections, primarily enacted in the 1990s, including state and federal prohibitions on take of White Shark, and progressively restrictive regulations on gillnet gear over the same time.
There are also indications that the adult population of White Sharks may be increasing. White shark attacks on marine mammals at Southeast Farallon Island have been documented since the 1980s, providing a lengthy time series for comparison. An increase in the number of attacks suggests that the White Shark population increased as the population of the northern elephant seals at the island increased. At San Miguel Island, off southern California’, evidence of White Shark attacks on pinnipeds have substantially increased in the last few years. White shark bite marks are also found on recovered carcasses of central California southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Over the past five years, researchers from the United States Geological Survey have documented a dramatic increase in the number of sea otter mortalities linked to White Shark bites.
The increase in attacks on marine mammals cannot be definitively linked to an increase in the White Shark population. However, instances of attacks have increased in new areas without a corresponding decrease in other locations. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer there may be more sharks foraging on marine mammals and moving into different areas.
Q: How are scientists studying the White Shark population?
Scientists at the Farallon Islands visually document individual White Sharks based on unique external characteristics (e.g. scars, marks, fin shapes, unique coloration patterns, etc.) They note any re-sightings of each recorded animal. It may soon be possible to use these visual documentations as a mark-and-recapture technique to estimate the actual numbers of animals occupying that area.
In Southern California, scientists from California State University Long Beach are tagging White Sharks and tracking their movements. Tagging enables scientists to determine how far sharks move and where they go as well as whether there's just one population or multiple populations moving up and down the coast. Recently, a shark tagged off of the California coast was tracked moving to Hawaii and back for two years in a row.
Q: Is fishing for White Sharks illegal?
Yes. It is illegal to fish for or catch White Sharks and they have been protected in California since January 1, 1994. White Sharks in California are also protected by federal regulations and must be immediately released if caught accidentally. Under these protections, it is illegal to catch, pursue, hunt, capture or kill a White Shark, which includes intentionally attracting White Sharks with bait or other methods. Commercial fishing operations may not intentionally target White Sharks, but are allowed to land sharks incidentally caught in some fishing nets.
Q: How do you tell White Sharks from other species of sharks?
According to Dr. Robert Lea, retired CDFW senior biologist and shark expert, "If you see a shark greater than 15 ft. in California, chances are it's a White Shark." White Sharks have robust torpedo shaped bodies with conical snouts and a narrow tail stalk with stout ridges called keels that extend laterally off either side. Their coloration is defined by a clear distinction between charcoal grey or black to dark grey-brown upper surfaces and white lower surfaces. The pectoral fins have white trailing edges, black tips on the undersides, and a black spot occurs at the pectoral axil ("armpit") in some individuals. Their jaws are loaded with large, triangular, serrated teeth.
The most similar species in California include the Mako Shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), which lacks black tips on the undersides of the fins and has thin, pointed teeth without serrations, and the Salmon Shark (Lamna ditropis), which has a generally darker back, larger eye, shorter snout, is white above the pectoral fins, and also has pointed teeth without serration.
View a sketch of a White Shark compared to other sharks in the same family (PDF)
(Lamnidae, the mackerel sharks), from California Fish and Game Bulletin 157, by Miller and Lea.
Q: How can people avoid White Shark attacks?
There is only one guaranteed method for avoiding a White Shark attack: stay out of the ocean. While most White Shark attacks have occurred at the surface, there have also been attacks on divers underwater. Scientists agree that most White Shark attacks on humans are unintentional – where the shark mistakes the person for a seal or sea lion. Swimming in areas where White Sharks have been observed or where sharks have been seen feeding on marine mammals is not recommended.
Shark Incident Information