Scientific Literature & Works Cited

A desert sunset sets over a landscape of yucca and scrubbush.
A desert sunset. CDFW photo by Ashley Evans.

Selected Bighorn Sheep Literature

  • Abella, R. K., V. C. Bleich, R. A. Botta, B. J. Gonzalez, T. S. Stephenson, S. G. Torres, J. D. Wehausen. 2011. Status of bighorn sheep in California – 2010. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 51: 54-68.
  • Albrechtsen, B. R., and J. B. Reese. 1970. Problem analysis of habitat management for desert bighorn sheep. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 14:63-65.
  • Alexander, R. D. 1974. The evolution of social behavior. Ann. Rev. Syst. And Ecol. 5:325-383.
  • Andrew, N. G., V. C. Bleich, P. V. August, and S. G. Torres., 1997a. Demography of mountain sheep in the East Chocolate Mountains, Imperial County, California. California Fish and Game 83:, 68–77.
  • Andrew, N. G., L. M. Lesicka, and V. C. Bleich. 1997b. An improved fence design to protect water sources for native ungulates. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25:823–825.
  • Austin, M. 1906. The flock. Houghton Mifflin and Co., New York.
  • Bates, Jr., J. W. 1982. Desert bighorn habitat utilization in Canyonlands National Park. M. S. Thesis. Utah State University, Logan. 118pp.
  • Berger, J. 1978. Group size, foraging, and antipredator ploys: an analysis of bighorn sheep decisions. Behavior Ecology and Sociobiology 4:91-99.
  • Berger, J. 1991. Pregnancy incentives, predation constraints and habitat shifts: experimental and field evidence for wild bighorn sheep. Animal Behavior 41:61-77.
  • Besser, T. E., E. F. Cassirer, K. A. Potter, J. Vanderschalie, A. Fischer, D. P. Knowles, D. R. Herndon, F. R. Rurangirwa, G. C. Weiser, and S. Srikumaran. 2008. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection with population-limiting respiratory disease in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis). Journal of Clinical Microbiology 46:423-230.
  • Blaisdell, J. A. 1975. Progress report: the Lava Beds reestablishment program. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 19:36-37.
  • Bleich, V. C. 1982. Horizontal wells for mountain sheep: desert bighorn “get the shaft”. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 26:63-64.
  • Bleich, V. C. 1999. Mountain sheep and coyotes: patterns of predator evasion in a mountain ungulate. Journal of Mammalogy 80:283-289.
  • Bleich, V. C. 2009. Factors to consider when reprovisioning water developments used by mountain sheep. California Fish and Game 95:153–159.
  • Bleich, V. C., and R. A. Weaver. 1983. “Improved” sand dams for wildlife habitat management. Journal of Range Management 36:130
  • Bleich, V. C., L. J. Coombes, and J. H. Davis. 1982a. Horizontal wells as a wildlife habitat improvement technique. Wildlife Society Bulletin 10:324-328.
  • Bleich, V. C., L. J. Coombes, and G. W. Sudmeier. 1992b. Volunteers and wildlife habitat management: twelve years together. Cal-Neva Wildlife Transactions 1982:64-68.
  • Bleich, V. C., R. T. Bowyer, and J. D. Wehausen. 1997. Sexual segregation in mountain sheep: resources or predation? Wildl. Mongr. No. 134. 50pp.
  • Bleich, V. C., H. E. Johnson, S. A. Holl, L. Konde, S. G. Torres, and P. R. Krausman. 2008. Fire history in a chaparral ecosystem: implications for conservation of a native ungulate. Rangeland Ecology and Management 61:571–579.
  • Bleich, V. C., J. D. Wehausen, R. R. Ramey II, and J. L. Rechel. 1996. Metapopulation theory and mountain sheep: implications for conservation. Pages 453-473 in D. R. McCullough, ed. Metapopulations and wildlife conservation management. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
  • Bleich, V. C., J. D. Wehausen, and S. A. Holl. 1990a. Desert-dwelling mountain sheep: conservation implications of a naturally fragmented distribution. Conservation Biology 4:383-390.
  • Bleich, V. C., J. D. Wehausen, K. R. Jones, and R. A. Weaver. 1990b. Status of bighorn sheep in California, 1989, and translocations from 1971 through 1989. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 34:24-26.
  • Bleich, V. C., J. P. Marshal, and N. G. Andrew. 2010. Habitat use by a desert ungulate: predicting effects of water availability on mountain sheep. Journal of. Arid Environments 74:638-645.
  • Blong, B., and W. Pollard. 1968. Summer water requirements of desert bighorn in the Santa Rosa Mountains, California, in 1965. California Fish and Game 54:289-296.
  • Boag, D. A., and W. D. Wishart. 1982. Distribution and abundance of terrestrial gastropods on a winter range of bighorn sheep in southwestern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:2633-2640.
  • Borjesson, D. L., W. M. Boyce, I. A. Gardner, J. DeForge, and B. Lasley. 1996. Pregnancy detection in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) using a fecal-based enzyme immunoassay. Journal of. Wildlife Diseases 32:67-74.
  • Boyce, W.M., R.R. Ramey II, T.C. Rodwell, E.S. Rubin, and R.S. Singer. 1999. Population subdivision among bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) ewes revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis. Molecular Ecology 8:99-106.
  • Browning, B. M., and G. Monson. Food. Pages 80-99 in G. Monson and L. Sumner, eds. The desert bighorn, its life history, ecology, and management. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
  • Broyles, B. 1995. Desert wildlife water developments: questioning use in the southwest. Wildlife Society Bulletin 23:663-675.
  • Broyles, B., and T. L. Cutler. 1999. Effect of surface water on desert bighorn sheep in the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, southwestern Arizona. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:1082-1088.
  • Buechner, H. K. 1960. The bighorn sheep in the United States, its past, present, and future. Wildlife Monographs 4:1-174.
  • Bunch. T. D., W. M. Boyce, C. P. Hibler, W. R. Lance, T. R. Spraker, and E. S. Williams. 1999. Diseases of North American wild sheep. Pages 209-237 in R. Valdez and P. R. Krausman, eds. Mountain sheep of North America. University. of Arizona. Press., Tucson.
  • Bunch, T. D., J. Karpowitz, J. Connor, and G. W. Workman. 1986. Pregnancy diagnosis in free ranging Nelson’s desert bighorn ewes. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions. 30:2-4.
  • Bunnell, F. L. 1982. The lambing period of mountain sheep: synthesis, hypotheses, and tests. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:1-14.
  • Carey, H. V., and J. D. Wehausen. 1991. Mammals. Pages 437-460 in C. A. Hall, ed. Natural history of the White-Inyo Range, Eastern California. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Carrington, M., G. W. Nelson, M. P. Martin, T. Kissner, D. Vlahov, J. J. Goedert, R. Kaslow, S. Buchbinder, K. Hoots, and S. J. O’Brien. 1999. HLA and HIV-1: heterozygote advantage and B*35-Cw*04 disadvantage. Science 283:1748-1752.
  • Caughley, G. 1976. Wildlife management and the dynamics of ungulate populations. Advances in Applied Biology 1:183-245.
  • Caughley, G. 1987. Ecological relationships. Pages 159-187 in G. Caughley, N. Shepherd, and J. Short, eds. Kangaroos, their ecology and management in the sheep rangelands of Australia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Clark, R. K., W. M. Boyce, D. A. Jessup, and L. F. Elliott. 1993. Survey of pathogen exposure among population clusters of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 24:48-53.
  • Clark, R. K., D. A. Jessup, M. D. Kock, and R. A. Weaver. 1985. Survey of desert bighorn sheep in California for exposure to selected infectious diseases. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 187:1175-1179.
  • Clark, R. K., D. A. Jessup, and R. A. Weaver. 1988. Scabies mite infestation in desert bighorn sheep from California. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 32:13-15.
  • Cleary, E. 1973. Selective exclusion fencing in wild burro and bighorn sheep. management. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions. 17:106-109.
  • Coltman, D. W., J. G. Pilkington, J. A. Smith, and J. M. Pemberton. 1999. Parasite mediated selection against inbred soay sheep in a free-living, island population. Evolution 53:1259-1267.
  • Cowan, I. McT. 1940. Distribution and variation in the native sheep of North America. American Midland Naturalist 24:505-580.
  • Cronin, M. A., and V. C. Bleich. 1995. Mitochondrial DNA variation among populations and subspecies of mule deer in California. California Fish and Game 81:45-54.
  • Cunningham, S. C., and R. D. Ohmart. 1986. Aspects of the ecology of desert bighorn sheep in Carrizo Canyon, California. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 30:14-19.
  • Czech, B., and P. R. Krausman. 1999. Controversial wildlife management issues in southwestern U. S. wilderness. International Journal of Wilderness 5:22-28.
  • Dassanayake, R. P., S. Shanthalingam, C. N. Herndon, P. K. Lawrence, E. F. Cassirer, K. A. Potter, W. J. Foreyt, K. D. Clinkenbeard, and S. Srikumaran. 2009. Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 exhibits differential pathogenicity in two related species, Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries. Veterinary Microbiology 133:366-71.
  • DeForge, J. R., E. M. Barrett, S. D. Ostermann, M. C. Jorgensen, and S. G. Torres. 1995. Population dynamics of peninsular bighorn sheep in the Santa Rosa Mountains, California, 1983-1994. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 39:50-67.
  • Dixon, J. S., and E. L. Sumner, Jr. 1939. A survey of desert bighorn in Death Valley National Monument. California Fish and Game 25:72-95.
  • Dolan, B. F. 2006. Water developments and desert bighorn sheep: implications for conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:642-646.
  • Douglas, C. L., and K. M. Longshore. 1995. Population monitoring and habitat analysis for the Black Mountain bighorn sheep, Death Valley, California. Cooperative National Park Resources Study Unit Contribution Number CPSU/UNLV 064/03. , 51pp.
  • Douglas, C. L., and C. Norment. 1977. Habitat damage by feral burros in Death Valley. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions. 21:23-25.
  • Dunn, W. C., and C. L. Douglas. 1982. Interactions between desert bighorn sheep and feral burros at spring areas in Death Valley. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions. 26:87-96.
  • Eccles, T. R., and D. M. Shackleton. 1979. Recent records of twinning in North American mountain sheep. Journal of Wildlife Management 43:974-976.
  • Epps, C. W. 2004. Population processes in a changing climate: extinction, dispersal, and metapopulation dynamics of desert bighorn sheep in California. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.
  • Epps, C. W., V. C. Bleich, J. D. Wehausen, and S. G. Torres. 2003. Status of bighorn sheep in California. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions. 47:20-35.
  • Epps, C. W., D. R. McCullough, J. D. Wehausen, V. C. Bleich, and J. L. Rechel. 2004a. Effects of climate change on population persistence of desert-dwelling mountain sheep in California. Conservation Biology 18:102-113.
  • Epps, C. W., P. J. Palsbøll, J. D. Wehausen, G. K. Roderick, R. R. Ramey II, and D. R. McCullough. 2005. Highways block gene flow and cause rapid decline in genetic diversity of desert bighorn sheep. Ecological Letters 8:1029-1038.
  • Epps, C. W., J. D. Wehausen, V. C. Bleich, S. G. Torres, and J. S. Brashares. 2007. Optimizing dispersal and corridor models using landscape genetics. Journal of Applied Ecology 44:714-724.
  • Epps, C. W., J. D. Wehausen, P. J. Palsbøll, and D. R. McCullough. 2010. Using genetic tools to track desert bighorn sheep colonizations. Journal of Wildlife Management 74:522-531.
  • Ernest, H. B., E. S. Rubin, and W. M. Boyce. 2002. Fecal DNA analysis and risk assessment of mountain lion predation of bighorn sheep. Journal of Wildlife Management 66:75-85.
  • Festa-Bianchet, M. 1986. Seasonal dispersion of overlapping mountain sheep ewe groups. Journal of Wildlife Management 50:325-330.
  • Festa-Bianchet, M., T. Coulson, J.-M. Gaillard, J. T. Hogg, and F. Pelletier. 2006. Stochastic predation events and population persistence in bighorn sheep. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 273:1537-1543.
  • Fitzsimmons, N. N., S. W. Buskirk, and M. H. Smith. 1995. Population history, genetic variability, and horn growth in bighorn sheep. Conservation Biology 9:314-323.
  • Foreyt, W. J., E. J. Jenkins, and G. D. Appleyard. 2009. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45:272-278.
  • Foreyt, W. J., and J. E. Lagerquist. 1996. Experimental contact of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) with horses and cattle, and comparison of neutrophil sensitivity to Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32:594-602.
  • Forrester, D. J. 1971. Bighorn sheep lungworm-pneumonia complex. Pages 158-173 in J. W. Davis and R. Anderson, eds. Parasitic diseases of wild mammals. Iowa State University. Univ. Press, Ames.
  • Forrester, D. J., and R. C. Littell. 1976. Influence of rainfall on lungworm infections in bighorn sheep. Journal of. Wildlife Diseases 12:48-51.
  • Frankham, R. 1995. Effective population size/adult population size ratio in wildlife: a review. Genetical Research 66:95-107.
  • Gaillard, J.-M., M. Festa-Bianchet, and N. G. Yoccoz. 1998. Population dynamics of large herbivores: variable recruitment with constant adult survival. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13:58-63.
  • Gaillard, J.-M., M. Festa-Bianchet, N. G. Yoccoz, A. Loison, and C. Toigo. 2000. Temporal variation in fitness components and population dynamics of large herbivores. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31:367-393.
  • Gallizioli, S. 1977. Overgrazing on desert bighorn ranges. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 21:21-23.
  • Garfinkel, A. P., D. A. Young, and R. M. Yohe II. 2010. Bighorn hunting, resource depression, and rock art in the Coso Range, eastern California: a computer simulation model. Journal of Archeological Science. 37:42-51.
  • Garlinger, B. H. 1987. Habitat evaluation of historic desert bighorn range in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains. Administrative Report, Kern River Wildlife Sanctuary, Onyx, CA. 58pp.
  • Geist, V. 1967. A consequence of togetherness. Natural History 76:24, 29-30.
  • Geist, V. 1971. Mountain sheep: a study in behavior and evolution. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Geist, V., and R. G. Petocz. 1977. Bighorn sheep in winter: do rams maximize reproductive fitness by spatial and habitat segregation from ewes? Canadian Journal of Zoology 55:1802-1810.
  • Gillespie, J. H. 1998. Population genetics, a concise guide. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
  • Goodson, N. J. 1982. Effects of domestic sheep grazing on bighorn sheep populations: a review. Proceedings of the Biennial Symposium of the Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council 3:287-313.
  • Halloran, A. F., and O. Deming. 1958. Water development for desert bighorn sheep. Journal of Wildlife Management 22:1-9.
  • Hamilton, W. D. 1971. Geometry for the selfish herd. Journal of Theoretical Biology 31:295-311
  • Hanley, T. A. 1982. The nutritional basis for food selection by ungulates. Journal of. Range Management. 35:146-151.
  • Hanley, T. A., and W. W. Brady. 1977. Feral burro impacts on a Sonoran Desert range. Journal of Range Management 30:374-377.
  • Hanski, I. 1991. Single-species metapopulation dynamics: concepts, models, and observations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 42:17-38.
  • Hartl, D. L. and A. G. Clark. 1997. Principles of population genetics, third edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, MA.
  • Hass, C. C. 1995. Gestation periods and birth weights of desert bighorn sheep in relation to other caprinae. Southwestern Naturalist 40:139-147.
  • Hayes, C. L., E. S. Rubin, M. C. Jorgensen, R. A. Botta, and W. M. Boyce. 2000. Mountain lion predation of bighorn sheep in the Peninsular Ranges, California. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:954-959.
  • Hervert, J. J., R. S. Henry, M. T. Brown, and R. L. Kearns. 1998. Sighting rates of bighorn sheep during helicopter surveys on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 42:11-26.
  • Hoban, P. A. 1990. A review of desert bighorn sheep in the San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 34:14-22.
  • Hogg, J. T., S. H. Forbes, B. M. Steele, and G. Luikart. 2006. Genetic rescue of an insular population of large mammals. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 273:1491–1499.
  • Holl, S. A., and V. C. Bleich. 1983. San Gabriel mountain sheep: biological and management considerations. Administrative Report, San Bernardino National Forest, San Bernardino, CA.
  • Holl, S. A., V. C. Bleich, B. W. Callenberger, and B. Bahro. 2012. Simulated effects of two fire regimes on bighorn sheep: the San Gabriel Mountains, California, USA. Fire Ecology 8(3):88–103. [DOI: 10.4996/fireecology.0803088]
  • Holl, S. A., V. C. Bleich, and S. G. Torres. 2004. Population dynamics of bighorn sheep in the San Gabriel Mountains, California, 1967-2002. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32:412-426.
  • Irvine, C. A. 1969. The desert bighorn sheep in southeastern Utah. M. S. Thesis, Utah State University, Logan. 99pp.
  • Jaeger, E. C. 1950. Our desert neighbors. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, CA.
  • Jaeger, J. R. 1994. Demography and movements of mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) in the Kingston and Clark Mountain ranges, California. M.S. Thesis, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. 64 pp.
  • Janis, C. 1976. The evolutionary strategy of the Equidae and the origins of rumen and cecal digestion. Evolution 30:757-774.
  • Jessup, D. A. 1985. Diseases of domestic livestock which threaten bighorn sheep populations. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 29:29-33.
  • Jessup, D. A., W. E. Clark, and R. C. Mohr. 1984. Capture of bighorn sheep: management recommendations. California Department of Fish and Game, Wildlife Branch Administrative Report 84-1.
  • Johnson, H. E., L. S. Mills, T. R. Stephenson, and J. D. Wehausen. 2010. Population-specific vital rate contributions influence management of an endangered ungulate. Ecological Applications 20:1753-1765.
  • Jones, F. L. 1950. A survey of the Sierra Nevada bighorn. Sierra Club Bulletin 35(6):29-76.
  • Kelly, W. E. 1980. Predator relationships. Pages 186-196 in G. Monson and L. Sumner, eds. The desert bighorn, its life history, ecology, and management. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
  • Kerr, R. A. 2011. Vital details of global warming are eluding forecasters. Science 334:173-174.
  • Kock, M. D., D. A Jessup, R. K. Clark, C. E. Franti, and R. A Weaver. 1987a. Capture methods in five subspecies of bighorn sheep: an evaluation of drop-net, drive-net, chemical immobilization and the net-gun. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 23:634-640.
  • Kock, M. D., D. A Jessup, R. K. Clark, and C. E. Franti. 1987b. Effects of capture on biological parameters in free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): evaluation of drop-net, drive-net, chemical immobilization, and the net-gun. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 23:641-651.
  • Kock, M. D., R. K. Clark, and C. E. Franti, D. A Jessup, and J. D. Wehausen. 1987c. Effects of capture on biological parameters in free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): evaluation of normal, stressed, and mortality outcomes and documentation of postcapture survival. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 23:652-662.
  • Krausman, P. R., B. D. Leopold, R. F. Seegmiller, and S. G. Torres. 1989. Relationships between desert bighorn sheep and habitat in western Arizona. Wildlife Monographs 102:1-66.
  • Krausman, P. R., A. V. Sandoval, and R. C. Etchberger. 1999. Natural history of desert bighorn sheep. Pages 139-191 in R. Valdez and P. R. Krausman, eds. Mountain sheep of North America. University. of Arizona. Press., Tucson.
  • Krausman, P. R., S. Torres, L. L. Ordway, J. J. Hervert, and M. Brown. 1985. Diel activity of ewes in the Little Harquahala Mountains, Arizona. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 29:24-26.
  • Krausman, P. R., J. D. Wehausen, M. C. Wallace, and R. C. Etchberger. 1993. Rumen characteristics of desert races of mountain sheep and desert mule deer. Southwestern Naturalist 38:172-174.
  • Krausman, P. R., S. S. Rosenstock, and J. W. Cain III. 2006. Developed waters for wildlife: science, perception, values, and controversy. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:563-569.
  • Lande, R. 1988. Genetics and Demography in Biological Conservation. Journal of Science 241:1455-1460.
  • Lange, R. E., A. V. Sandoval, and W. P. Meleny. 1980. Psoroptic scabies in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) in New Mexico. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 16:77-82.
  • Lawrence, P. K., S. Shanthalingam, R. P. Dassanayake, R. Subramaniam, C. N. Herndon, D. P. Knowles, F. R. Rurangirwa, W. J. Foreyt, G. Wayman, A. M. Marciel, S. K. Highlander, and S. Srikumaran. 2010. Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46:706-717.
  • Leach, H. R., J. M. Brode, and S. J. Nicola. 1974. At the crossroads 1974, a report on California’s endangered and rare fish and wildlife. Administrative Report, California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento.
  • Leopold, A. 1933. Game Management. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.
  • Lesicka, L. M., and J. J. Hervert. 1995. Low maintenance water development for arid environments: concepts, materials, and techniques. Pages 52–57 in D. P. Young, R. Vinzant, and M. D. Strickland, editors. Proceedings of the second wildlife water symposium. Water for Wildlife Foundation, Laramie, Wyoming, USA.
  • Leslie, D. M., Jr., and C. L. Douglas. 1979. Desert bighorn sheep of the River Mountains, Nevada. Wildlife Monographs 66:1-56.
  • Longhurst, W. M., A. S. Leopold, and R. F. Dasmann. A survey of California deer herds, their ranges and management problems. Game Bulletin 6:1-136. Calfiornia Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, USA.
  • Longshore, K. M., C. Lowrey, and D. B. Thompson. 2009. Compensating for diminishing natural water: predicting the impacts of water development on summer habitat of desert bighorn sheep. Journal of Arid Environments 73:280-286.
  • Longshore, K., C. Lowrey, M. Jeffress, and D. B. Thompson. 2009. Nocturnal movements of desert bighorn sheep in the Muddy Mountains, Nevada. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 50:18-31.
  • Marshal, J. P., P.R Krausman, V. C. Bleich. 2005. Dynamics of mule deer forage in the Sonoran Desert. Journal of Arid Environments 60:593–609.
  • Marshal, J. P., L. M. Lesicka, V. C. Bleich, P. R. Krausman, G. P. Mulcahy, and N. G. Andrew. 2006. Demography of desert mule deer in southeastern California. California Fish and Game 92:55–66.
  • Marshal, J. P., V. C. Bleich, and N. G. Andrew. 2008. Evidence of interspecific competition between feral ass Equus asinus and mountain sheep Ovis canadensis in a desert environment. Wildlife Biology 14:228-236.
  • Mazet, J. A. K., W. M. Boyce, J. Mellies, I. A. Gardner, R. K. Clark, and D. A. Jessup. 1992. Exposure to Psoroptes sp. mites is common among bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations in California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 28:542-547.
  • McKnight, T. L. 1958. The feral burro in the United States: distribution and problems. Journal of Wildlife Management 22:163-179.
  • McMichael, T. J. 1964. Relationships between desert bighorn and feral burros in the Black Mountains of Mojave County. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions. 8:29-35.
  • McQuivey, R. 1978. The desert bighorn sheep of Nevada. Nevada Department of Fish and Game Bulletin 6:1-81.
  • Miller, G. D., M. H. Cochran, and E. L. Smith. 1984. Nighttime activity of desert bighorn sheep. Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 28:23-25.
  • Mooring, M. S., T. A. Fitzpatrick, J. E. Benjamin, E. C. Fraser, T. T. Nishihira, D. D. Reisig, and E. M. Rominger. 2003. Sexual segregation in desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana). Behaviour 140:183-207.
  • Mooring, M. S., T. A. Fitzpatrick, J. E. Benjamin, T. T. Nishihira, and D. D. Reisig. 2004. Vigilance, predation risk, and the Allee effect in desert bighorn sheep. Journal of Wildlife Management 68:519-532.
  • Morris, W. F., and D. F. Doak. 2002. Quantitative conservation biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
  • Muir, J. 1894. The mountains of California. The Century Company, New York.
  • Nichols, L., and F. L. Bunnell. 1999. Natural history of thinhorn sheep. Pages 23-77 in R. Valdez and P. R. Krausman, eds. Mountain sheep of North America. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
  • Ober, E. H. 1931. The mountain sheep of California. California Fish and Game 17:27-39.
  • Oehler, M., R. Bowyer, and V. Bleich. 2003. Home ranges of female mountain sheep Ovis canadensis nelsoni: effects of precipitation in a desert ecosystem. Mammalia 67:385-401.
  • Oehler, M. W., V. C. Bleich, R. T. Bowyer, and M. C. Nicholson. 2005. Mountain sheep and mining: implications for conservation and management. California Fish and Game 91:149-178.
  • Post, G. 1971. The pneumonia complex in bighorn sheep. Transactions of the North American Wild Sheep Conference 1:98-102.
  • Ramey, R. R. II. 1993. Evolutionary genetics and systematics of North American mountain sheep. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
  • Ramey, R. R. II. 1995. Mitochondrial DNA variation, population structure, and evolution of mountain sheep in the south-western United States and Mexico. Molecular Ecology 4:429-439.
  • Reisenhoover, K. L., and J. A. Bailey. 1985. Foraging ecology of mountain sheep: implications for habitat management. Journal of Wildlife Management 49:797-804.
  • Rominger, E. M., and M. E. Weisenberger. 2000. Biological extinction and a test of the “conspicuous individual hypothesis” in the San Andres Mountains, New Mexico.. Transactions of the North American Wild Sheep Conference 2:293-307.
  • Rominger, E. M., H. A. Whitlaw, D. L. Weybright, W. C. Dunn, and W. B. Ballard. 2004. The influence of mountain lion predation on bighorn sheep translocations. Journal of Wildlife Management 68:993-999.
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