Recent accomplishments of CDFW's scientific community
California’s coastal waters are home to seven species of abalone, and all but one are endangered or listed as species of special concern. The white abalone in particular has been nearly decimated by overfishing and disease, and scientists can find no evidence that the remaining population is reproducing in the wild. In order to avoid loss of the entire species, CDFW and partner agencies have formed the White Abalone Recovery Consortium, which will employ captive rearing and restoration stocking efforts and extensive public outreach in order to save these animals from extinction. It will be an ongoing, long-term project, but all signs point to future success – already there are more white abalone thriving in the captive breeding program than the entire population living in the wild.
Read more about the efforts to restore California’s white abalone – and learn what you can do to help! – on the CDFW Marine Management News Blog.
Arborimus albipes, a CA Critically Imperiled Species of Special Concern
The white-footed vole is one of the least-studied (and most difficult to catch!) mammals in North America. CDFW Environmental Scientist Dr. Scott Osborn, his collaborator Dr. Tim Bean of Humboldt State University’s Wildlife Department, and a small team of field biologists know that better than anyone – they spent the summer of 2014 setting traps for them in Humboldt and Del Norte counties. Designated a Species of Special Concern by CDFW, only nine records of the species were known in California prior to their study, which was aimed at determining how environmental conditions, such as climate (and future climate change), might affect their distribution.
Habitat modeling by Bean (based on the previous records) identified areas with high habitat suitability for the white-footed vole. Ten study sites were chosen along the North Coast for the field study, including three where voles had been successfully trapped in the 1990s. Using live traps (both pitfall traps made of two coffee cans taped together and Sherman live traps baited with oats and peanut butter), the team successfully trapped three voles. Notably, one of these was the first recorded capture of a white-footed vole in Del Norte County. All three voles were returned unharmed to their capture site after basic measurements and assessments of food plant preferences were made.
Although three voles might not seem like a large return on the investment of many hours of field work, the team actually had one of the highest capture rates of white-footed voles of any small mammal study in its geographic range, which includes coastal Oregon and the North Coast of California. Vegetation plots suggest that white-footed voles are tightly associated with stands of red alder trees – so now the biologists know that’s a likely place to find them. The habitat modeling work indicates that suitable habitat may currently exist as far south as Mendocino County, which is outside the known geographic range of the vole. On the other hand, it is possible that this species’ range may contract northward in a warmer and drier future. Open the Full Report (PDF)
Surveying Ventura River in Ventura County
Snorkel survey in Hollow Tree Creek in Mendocino County
Hollow Tree Creek steelhead
Taking care of California’s fish and wildlife wouldn’t be possible without managing the resources upon which they depend. To that end, CDFW has an entire branch – and many scientific staff – dedicated to the scientific study, and planning and management of water resources.
Within the Water Branch, CDFW’s Instream Flow Program (IFP) is tasked with collecting and contributing data necessary to make all kinds of important management decisions about ecological function, fish rearing, spawning and migration and habitat suitability.
In the simplest terms, “instream flow” refers to the rate of the water running through a waterway in a natural environment. But when one considers all the interests competing for use of that water – fisherman, boaters, farmers, businesses, water districts, and fish and wildlife themselves – the complexity of the subject is evident.
Measured in cubic feet per second (cfs), instream flow can be measured at different times of the year in a specific location in a waterway. The fluctuations can tell scientists quite a bit about the ecosystem health of a watershed. While some watersheds have flowing water throughout the year and others are intermittent it is often the responsibility of water managers to distribute the water between uses. CDFW, a natural resource management agency, is faced with the complex task of identifying and recommending instream flows necessary for supporting natural resources. Determining instream flows are crucial so that aquatic, riparian, and terrestrial resources dependent on water will be considered and protected during water distribution activities.
Guided by the California Water Action Plan, the Public Resources Code and the Fish and Game Code, IFP staff conduct flow studies, collect field data, develop guidelines for quality assurance, conduct outreach and coordinate with other agencies and interested parties on program-related activities.
In the past year, some of IFP staff’s largest projects have included:
To learn more about these specific projects, please download the IFP’s 2017 Year in Review (PDF) document, available on CDFW’s website.
A Featured Scientist Q&A with the IFP manager Robert Holmes is also available on the CDFW Science Institute page.
CDFW photos. Top photo: IFP staff hold a planning meeting prior to a survey on the Ventura River in Ventura County
Working late, Mojave River hatchery staff apply FDA-certified epoxy coating to hatchery rearing ponds.
CDFW fish transportation truck at Fillmore Hatchery
Acting Mojave River Hatchery Manager Forest Williams at work
A hatchery crew releases trout into the Feather River
A fishy view of trout planting on the Feather River
The beginning of trout fishing season in Southern California is just around the corner, and CDFW biologists and hatchery staff are striving to maximize hatchery trout availability for the many anglers who will cast lines in coming weeks. Trout angling in lower-elevation waters of Southern California generally begins in November and continues through April, to correspond with colder water temperatures that can sustain stocked trout.
Precise temperatures are just one of the criteria that must be met before trout stocking begins. Currently, these conditions are approaching optimal levels, but CDFW is running about two weeks behind schedule due to unforeseen circumstances at Mojave River and Fillmore trout hatcheries, two of CDFW’s southernmost facilities.
The Mojave River Hatchery, built in 1947, raises and stocks a ten-year average of 340,000 pounds of catchable trout per year. Beginning in June of this year, extensive maintenance and facility upgrades necessitated turning off the water for a six-month period. While the completed upgrades will ultimately result in better and more efficient trout production for Southern California, the project ran about two months behind schedule. Water is scheduled to flow again at Mojave River Hatchery in late November and the hatchery will be populated with fingerling trout for fast growth. Mojave’s year-round water temperatures yield fast trout growth resulting in maximized yield in minimal time.
While the Mojave River Hatchery was closed, Fillmore Hatchery, built in 1941 on the Santa Clara River, experienced a significant loss of trout inventory intended for Southern California angling due to gas bubble disease. Gas bubble disease is a result of supersaturated gasses (oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide) present in well water pumped from a deep aquifer. While Fillmore Hatchery is equipped to aerate this water and make it suitable for trout, an unknown variable (possibly a drought-depleted and then recharged aquifer) overwhelmed that ability. In an average year, Fillmore Hatchery produces about 400,000 trout for lakes and streams in Southern California. To reduce fish losses from gas bubble disease in the last several weeks, catchable fish were stocked from Fillmore to appropriate waters, and some fish were transferred to other hatcheries. Ultimately, the gas bubble disease at Fillmore resulted in a loss of about 50 percent of inventory. While emergency measures taken by Fillmore staff and
CDFW fish pathologists resulted in better conditions and lower gas super-saturation, the hatchery must be depopulated so that the issue can be addressed entirely. As soon as all trout are removed, hatchery staff and scientists will increase the gas diffusion capability of aeration towers at Fillmore, in order to handle supersaturated well water for the short and long term.
The status of these two hatcheries presented a substantial problem for trout stocking in Southern California that was solved in part by hatcheries in Central and Northern California. These hatcheries have sufficient catchable size trout to supply Southern California’s approved waters immediately and in coming weeks. Thanks to strategic planning and trout production at a statewide level, Northern and Central California can supply fish to Southern California without impacting originally scheduled trout releases in their respective areas.
Trout stocking for Southern California waters will begin this week and hatchery trucks are on the move. Hatchery staff will work quickly to distribute trout to as many approved waters as possible. Trout stocking to Southern California will initially be lighter than usual, but will likely pick back up in 2018. As Mojave River Hatchery comes back online, fish transferred to that facility will be fed and reared to maximize daily growth. We anticipate another large batch of catchable trout available for Southern California toward early spring 2018.
Hatchery staff will be doing everything possible, statewide, to maximize trout production and releases to approved waters in the coming months. Staff work diligently for the angling public and appreciate their continued support.
The statewide planting schedule is updated in real time online.
CDFW photos. Top: Steelhead trout at Mokelumne River Hatchery
A California red-legged frog sits motionless at the edge of McClure pond at the Sparling Ranch Conservation Bank. Photo by Ashley Spratt/USFWS
McClure pond is one of the most productive California red-legged frog ponds at the Sparling Ranch Conservation Bank. Like many of those on Sparling Ranch, it was named after the family who homesteaded in site in the late 1800s. Photo by Ashley Spratt/USFWS
Since the mid-1980s, California has been using a system of conservation and mitigation banking to protect valuable natural resources and critical habitat for fish, wildlife and plants. These banks are generally large, connected, ecologically meaningful areas of preserved, restored, enhanced or constructed habitat (for example, wetlands) that are set aside for the express purpose of providing mitigation for project impacts. Conservation banks provide mitigation for impacts to listed species and habitats, while wetland mitigation banks primarily provide mitigation for wetland impacts. Together, they serve to prevent inadequate, fragmented reserves that can result when mitigation projects are carried out individually.
Banks work by establishing credits for sensitive species or habitats found on a given site. These credits can then be sold to developers or other project proponents who need to meet permitting requirements or are otherwise required to compensate for environmental impacts. For those parties needing to mitigate for project impacts, banks serve to streamline the regulatory process by providing a pre-established mitigation site that the regulating state and federal agencies have already confirmed will provide adequate and appropriate mitigation for certain habitats or species. By mitigating at a bank, project proponents can avoid the time and cost of searching for a suitable mitigation site and protecting it in perpetuity themselves.
In order for the banking system to be effective, state and federal agencies must work closely together to align processes and practices. Since 1993, CDFW has been participating in the planning, review, approval, establishment, monitoring and oversight of 81 banks statewide. Other agencies that typically participate in the regulation and approval of conservation banks include the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA NMFS).
To read more about one of these successful partnerships, please visit USFWS’ newsroom.
Learn more about CDFW’s Conservation and Mitigation Banking program, on our website.
All photos courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Top photo: A herd of cattle graze atop a hillside at Sparling Ranch near Hollister, Calif. Photo by Ashley Spratt/USFWS.
California’s recreational fishery resource provides a huge benefit to the state’s economy. In the latest issue (102-3) of the scientific journal California Fish and Game, Reid et. al tackles the difficult task of quantifying the economic value of California’s recreational red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) fishery.
Using data for the 2013 season at more than 50 sites in Sonoma and Mendocino counties, the authors used the travel-cost estimation method to determine a value. According to their findings, the 31,000 people who fish for red abalone provide an economic benefit to California of between $24M and $44M annually.
The lower figure was derived solely by determining the costs involved in driving to the fishing locations, while the higher figure considers the time spent on the fishing activity. The data reveal three dominant criteria used to select fishing sites: 1) the presence of a harmful algal bloom — and the resulting stricter fishing regulations — in Sonoma County; 2) protection from ocean swells; and 3) the presence of recreational conveniences such as restrooms and boat launches.
Determining the economic value of the red abalone fishery puts into perspective the importance of managing it for sustainability.
Other articles in this issue focus on management implications for California halibut (Paralichthys californicus) and Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida).
Lesyna and Barnes report that California halibut reach physical maturity at different sizes and ages, depending upon location. Macroscopic examination of specimens revealed that, although all halibut were mature before reaching the commercial and recreational minimum legal size limit, central California halibut are larger and older by the time they reach physical maturity than their southern California counterparts.
Moore et. al studied the sexual development and symbionts of Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida) that settled naturally on artificial clutches placed in San Francisco Bay. The results of the study suggest that Olympia oysters have the capacity to flourish when suitable habitat is available.
Collectively, these articles demonstrate the importance of studying natural resources for their consumptive and non-consumptive value.
According to California Fish and Game Editor-in-Chief Armand Gonzales, the articles provide critical direction for resource management. “It is therefore incumbent upon us as scientists, to keep working, keep studying and keep reporting what we see and find.
The latest issue of California Fish and Game, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife’s scientific journal, is now available online! Issue 103(4) features articles that add to the knowledge base for three marine species, all of which face potential threats from overharvesting, incidental take and loss of habitat: Thorny stingray, Chinook salmon and green abalone.
The Thorny stingray (Urotrygon rogersi) (PDF) is common in the eastern Pacific, from the Gulf of California south to Ecuador, and is frequently a by-catch of commercial shrimp trawlers. Little is known about its life history and movements. It was thought to occupy relatively shallow depths ranging from two to 15 meters, with a maximum recorded depth of 30 meters. In their published research, Acevedo-Cervantes et al. report the discovery of specimens at a depth of 235 meters—an indicator that the Thorny stingray has the capacity to survive beneath the disturbance of commercial shrimping activity. According to the authors, this new information is “of vital relevance” for the management of the species.
Adams et al. examined the effects of El Niño on adult Chinook salmon as they migrate through the Gulf of the Farallones (PDF). Researchers found that the dressed weight of commercial landed Chinook was lower during El Niño compared to non-El Niño years, a reduction attributed to a disruption in the normal feeding cycle in the Gulf of the Farallones. The analysis suggests that management agencies need to give more consideration to ocean conditions as risk factors in planning the recovery of endangered and at-risk Chinook salmon spawning runs.
Green abalone (Haliotis fulgens; Philippi) (PDF) were once part of a large recreational and commercial fishery, but are now estimated to be at less than 1% of their baseline density. Past attempts at restocking wild populations using juvenile farm-raised green abalone have resulted in high mortality rates. In “Outplanting large adult green abalone (Haliotis fulgens) as a strategy for population restoration,” author Caruso explores the efficacy of using adult specimens—at least 10 years old—to augment wild populations. The resulting 40 percent survival rate is much higher than the survival rates of previous projects that used juveniles. Although it is costly to raise green abalone to adult size, it may be the best method, given the decades of past unsuccessful restocking attempts.
These articles provide information useful to fisheries managers and should be helpful for future recovery efforts.
Cover photo © Peter Hemming
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