PCR Primer Redesign Geller, J., Meyer, C., Parker, M. and Hawk, H. (2013), Redesign of PCR primers for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I for marine invertebrates and application in all-taxa biotic surveys. Molecular Ecology Resources, 13: 851–861. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1755-0998.12138/abstract Vector Study Ruiz, et al., Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) Examines (a) the contribution of California and SF Bay as focal points for introductions to western North America and (b) the vectors attributed to initial introductions to California. Watersipora DNA Study Geller, J., Moss Landing Marine Labs, Genomes Lab (MLML) A genetic study to determine the diversity and geographic origins of highly invasive bryozoans belonging to a cryptic species complex in the genus Watersipora found in CA. Halichondria Sponge DNA Study Geller, J., Moss Landing Marine Labs, Genomes Lab (MLML) A genetic study to determine the diversity and geographic origins of “Breadcrumb” sponges (genus Halichondria) found in CA. SF Bay Settling Plate & Molecular Genetic Analyses Study SERC & MLML A pilot NIS detection study combining genetic and morphological analyses of samples collected from artificial settling plates, quantitative surveys of existing hard substrate, and plankton tows. The MPPS process differs from conventional sequencing by exhaustively sequencing a large volume (~1,000,000) of individual DNA template molecules simultaneously. If effective, this approach would be a rapid and cost-effective approach for widespread and frequent monitoring. SF Bay Species Distribution Analysis MLML, Benthic Lab & CCR, Inc. Examines the distribution of NIS in San Francisco Bay.